Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay --

Yejung Lee Ms. Samson Biology Honors 13 December 2013 Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer is an abnormal and malignant cell growth in the thyroid gland (see figure 1). The wellbeing of a person’s thyroid gland is extremely important, as this organ secretes hormones and other chemicals that help a person maintain homeostasis, more specifically the weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and internal body temperature (Bethesda, National Cancer Institute). According to the Mayo Clinic, although it is not yet clear to researchers what exactly causes thyroid cancer, what medical scientists do know is why it occurs. One type of thyroid cancer that can be genetic is medullary thyroid cancer. This type of cancer is genetic because it is linked with a variety of risk factors that could lead up to cancer, such as gender, age, radiation exposure, hereditary conditions, and family history (â€Å"What Are the Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer?†). A major specific cause of thyroid diseases and cancers is insufficient iodine intake. Thyroid cancer is less common in the United States, than places that do not include as much iodine in the diet because in the United States, iodine is often added to many foods and consumption products. An environmental factor that is associated with thyroid cancer is exposure to radiation. One major example of this is the radiation from the Chernobyl incident; many people were affected by the radiation and many people, especially children, developed thyroid cancer (â€Å"What Are the Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer?†). The reasons why are unclear, but there is a sharp distinction between male and female thyroid cancer rates - females tend to develop the cancer more by nearly three times as often (â€Å"What Are the Risk Factors for Thyroid... ..., while a cell undergoes cell cycle, when a cell comes in contact with another cell, it stops reproducing. However, cancer cells continue to duplicate repeatedly until there is a mass of cells or a tumor to form (see figure 9). Lastly, in cell division when there is a mutation or abnormality in the DNA, a normal cell stops dividing. However, a cancerous cell will continue to duplicate and form mutations (â€Å"Cell Biology and Cancer†). Also, cancer cells are harmful because they grow and duplicate with complete disregard to the functions and limitations of the body (see figure 10). Also, cancerous cells have the ability to spread through metastasis throughout parts of the body through the bloodstream. In terms of similar behavior to that of normal cells, cancerous cells also duplicate, but at a very different rate ("Cancer Cells vs. Normal Cells: What's Different?"). â€Æ'

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