Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Overview Of Social Work Practice Social Work Essay Essays

Overview Of Social Work Practice Social Work Essay Essays Overview Of Social Work Practice Social Work Essay Essay Overview Of Social Work Practice Social Work Essay Essay Instead of a public assistance province designed for old hazards, old industries and old household structures, there is a demand for an intelligent public assistance province that will be active throughout our lives, assisting people to negociate unpredictable alteration at work and place ( Page, 1999, p.306 ) Social work has evolved over many old ages and is now portion of the province proviso of public assistance. The societal work profession has non merely had to develop pattern to react to the altering demands of persons and households but besides to that of politicians. The fact that households and family fortunes do non conform to the myth of atomic household forms is non socially or professionally understood and societal policies are frequently developed on this misinterpretation ( Boylan et Al, cited in Blackwell, 2008, p.12 ) . This piece of work will discourse in brief what societal work is and how societal work pattern and societal policy, which are the policies, processs, patterns and values related to societal public assistance, should develop in response to the demographic and societal alterations that households are confronting. Social work began with the birth of the public assistance province and the Beveridge Report. Issues such as subjugation, poorness and favoritism that societal workers deal with, every bit good as the five elephantine immoralities of society, which has to be dealt with by the authorities, were all identified by Beveridge ( Young, 1995, p.85 ) . Social policies were introduced as a deliberate intercession by the province to redistribute resources amongst its citizens so as to accomplish a public assistance aim and accordingly a function was created by this system that was known as societal work ( Baldock et Al, 2003, p.8 ) . This function is cardinal to developing and presenting societal attention and back uping the demands of persons and the wider society, nevertheless it is really much influenced by the political political orientations of the authorities in power and it is necessary for societal workers to work within these restrictions. These political orientations frequently creat e inequalities in society and are one of the chief issues that societal work and societal workers must take into history. To perplex affairs further societal policy frequently involves efforts to alter current societal agreements in one manner or another ( Manning, cited in Baldock et Al, 2003, p29 ) . The 1970 Local Authorities Social Services Act that was influenced by the Seebohm Report changed societal work political orientations from that of a symptom-based attack to a needs based doctrine. This resulted in societal work going more family and community focused, concentrating on maintaining households together and stable, as they are seen to be the chief signifier of socialization for an person ( Smith and Harris, 1972 ) . The societal work profession promotes societal alteration, job resolution in human relationships and the authorization and release of people to heighten wellbeing ( Seden, 2008, cited in Blackwell, p.161 ) . To guarantee that they are rehearsing in an appropriate and constructive mode, the societal workers function has to understand the differences of a society that is culturally diverse, guarantee that oppressive and prejudiced behavior is addressed and have the ability to advance equality in all countries of a service users life. In order to efficaciously set about their function they need to use a assortment of accomplishments to turn to the barriers, inequalities and unfairnesss that persons and households face. The function they undertake is defined by six cardinal functions and national occupational criterions ( found in the GSCC Code of Practice ) , which they have to run into in order to pattern ( IFSW, 2000, online ) . Furthermore they are answerable to authorities as their professional activities are included in authorities policy guidelines ( Seden, 2008, cited in Blackwell, p.161 ) . Social work can be described in assorted ways but Payne, ( cited in Thompson, 2009 ) chiefly discusses societal work in three ways. The first being Individualism Reformism which looks at societal public assistance and societal workers as facilitators of attention ; secondly Socialist Collectivist which is more of a political attack which looks at disadvantaged and oppressed societies wherein societal workers give people the resources to get away their laden place in society and eventually, Reflexive Therapeutic which is similar to the 2nd attack but is more focussed upon a service users ain personal growing out of their deprived place. Social work has dramatically altered over the last 30 old ages, as has household life forms, which have invariably evolved, shaped and adapted to societal alterations. Harmonizing to the Cabinet Office ( 2008 ) there are a assortment of grounds doing these alterations ; although divorce rates have somewhat declined, there has been a immense diminution in matrimony as it has become more normal for people to populate with a spouse, before marrying ( if at all ) in ulterior life. The handiness of contraceptive method has farther changed the timing of the household form and there has been an addition in same sex spouses. In add-on there has been an addition in births outside of matrimony, which has besides contributed to the rise in individual parent households and people populating entirely. Work life forms have changed for both male and female, as there has been an addition in employment for adult females and a dramatic lessening for work forces, which has resulted in adult females pas sing more clip in a on the job function instead than that of the household function. The Cabinet Office ( 2008 ) advises that the hereafter will include a comparatively big population of aged people and statistics show that by 2031, the UK s population will hold grown by 6.5 million of which 85 % will be over 65. Although people are populating longer, they may non needfully be sing a good quality of life and kids progressively have to take attention of their parents ( every bit good as their kids ) , which increases the load on some households. Informal carers are forecast to turn farther due to length of service and addition in chronic disease and this will hold a dramatic impact on the function of the household in society. Furthermore, more people will stay individual, more matrimonies will stop in divorce, more people will populate entirely, and more people will populate in reconstituted households. There will be an addition in the Numberss of stepfamilies and kids will pass more clip with a stepparent, or being shared between two parents who live apart and grand parents will play an progressively bigger function in child care. Changing forms of kid bearing and partnering will make new relationships and paternal functions which include traveling from biological male parents to step-fathers ( married or single ) , resident and non-resident bio-fathers, adoptive male parents and homosexual male parents. As alterations occur in society, individualization will go on to turn which will impact the traditional gender functions of work forces and adult females. Harmonizing to Collier ( cited in Jagger et Al, 1999, p.10 ) reconceptualisation of paternity will besides impact the altering dealingss between adult females and work forces and the impression of parentage and parent-child relationships will alter which will ensue in male parents playing a assortment of functions within the household that need to be recognised. In add-on, there will be more female-headed families taking to populate without being dependent on a male breadwinner and the outloo ks sing the division of domestic labor because of the altering gender functions will increase a adult females s pick but will supply challenges to household stableness ( Lewis, 2000, p.18 ) . As the population continues to turn, the figure of people and households populating below the poorness line and in societal exclusion will increase. The future population will besides be more ethnically diverse as it will be greatly affected by in-migration, refuge searchers and refugees and the demand to back up marginalized groups will increase ( Humphries, 2008, cited in Blackwell, p.81 ) . Furthermore in-migration will ensue in the dramatic rise in the figure of individual individual families and at the same clip will lend to the addition in birth rates. Social work and policy demands to reflect these alterations and develop consequently. . In visible radiation of the Government s push towards the personalisation docket, which is ensuing in an addition in autonomous support, there will be a important impact on the function of societal workers which will intend a more originative and individual centred attack will hold to be adopted. They will nevertheless still have an of import function to play with respects to working within multi disciplinary squads, as they will convey a point of view of the whole individual instead than merely concentrating on their symptoms, disablement or fortunes. The whole theoretical account of personalisation is about giving the person the freedom and pick to take services that they believe are best for them and so societal workers will hold to set about the development of information, advice and protagonism and support planning and securities firm. In add-on, societal workers will necessitate to beef up their accomplishments and develop new 1s to go on back uping people to travel from depend ence to autonomy and will hold to work together with persons to develop new and advanced local support administrations ( SCIE, 2010, online ) . Social workers may necessitate to follow a place of modulating the new and inclusive services that are required and chosen by the person. It is proven that the personalisation docket will accomplish better results and increased control and independency for persons and the societal worker will necessitate to work aboard the person to guarantee that this takes topographic point. One of the Governments enterprises is early intercession and preventive services and the societal worker will hold to lend more to this, which will hopefully alter the focal point of reacting to immediate crises to one of forestalling them in the first topographic point. With the addition in divorce and separation, it is critical that societal workers understand the impact it has on households in general but more significantly to listen, hear and react to the demands of the kids and immature people and to give them a voice ( Boylan et Al, cited in Blackwell, 2008, p.16 ) . Furthermore society is going more multi-culturally diverse and with the addition in in-migration, societal workers will necessitate to understand different civilizations, histories, linguistic communications and traditions including that of cultural and racial differences, instruction and experience and household position. They will necessitate to guarantee that they identify with, and regard, cultural diverseness and resist racialist pattern. Powell ( 2001, p. 141 ) argues that the rise in multiculturalism underlines the demand for a critical construct of citizenship at the Centre of societal work relationships with service users. In add-on, the ageing population has serious deductions for the development of societal work peculiarly associating to anti-ageism. Last but by no means the least, there is an statement about whether the GSCC codifications of pattern, which are modelled on human rights values, should be changed to bespeak the new worlds of services and suppliers ( GSCC, 2008, online ) . Changes within society means that societal work is invariably facing existent and formidable challenges and that societal workers will necessitate to accommodate invariably and rapidly. Most societal policy in the UK reinforces the political orientation of the atomic household and authorities policy doing seems stuck in a clip deflection in non to the full recognizing a broad scope of household signifiers, including those of lone single female parents which societal policy has stigmatised ( Carabine, cited in Lewis, 2000, p.90 ) . It needs to be understood that many traditional household units represent much inequality and womens rightists still frequently place the household as a cardinal site of adult females s subjugation and development. Womans may see concealed poorness, due to the unequal allotment of money by the male breadwinner, and domestic force where adult females and kids are the chief victims. Policies need to recognize and admit that human rights are being violated in these state of affairss and should be addressed. Families will go more diverse and cohabiting, single parentage, individual parents including both male and female, stepfamilies and same- sex relationships will go more common. Negative representation of any signifier of household that is non traditional , including reconstituted households and those of assorted race needs to stop ( Alcock et Al, 2008, p. 382 ) . Policies are based on an idealized mythic impression of household life and are non fit for intent in an age of diverseness and atomization and a more inclusive definition of matrimony demands to be developed which should concentrate on diverseness. Policy responses to these alterations in household life will reflect long-standing ideological, cultural and political differences between persons and states ( Baldock, 2003, p.187 ) and the old beliefs and values in relation to welfare and societal policy should non be employed. A modern household policy will non except households based on signifier or construction and although disadvantaged groups and those who unimpeachably need aid should be targeted to enable them to accomplish their full potency through eq ual chances, societal policies should supply cosmopolitan support for every household. The effects of an aging population are considerable and will impact health care, pensions, lodging demand etc but will besides greatly act upon the familiy by altering the households construction and living agreements. Furthermore more demand and committednesss will be placed on the household as they are still seen as the chief beginning of attention of older people and much of this attention is still provided by the adult female. Although most aged people are fit and good, research by WHO ( cited in National Institute of Ageing, online ) shows an addition in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, dementedness and Alzheimer s to call but a few and caring for their sick and aged parents will be seen as portion of a adult females s domestic duty. In add-on research ( Baldock et Al, 2003, p.177 ) shows that adult females still carry the chief function of kid attention and domestic work and their ability to come in the work force, entree resources and take on other duty is really much limited by their unpaid domestic responsibility as female parents, homemakers and carers. Harmonizing to Williams ( 1998, cited in Lewis, 2000, p.90 ) societal policy has left a bequest of characterised gendered rights and duties which meant that work forces were non the focal point of societal policy in this country due to the manner that male and female gender have been traditionally seen. However, with the challenges that households are confronting due to more adult females come ining the work force and work forces giving up paid work thereby redistributing income and wealth, societal policies should understand the place of adult females in modern society and should be important to procuring adult females s equal entree to resources in society. This should include good quality and low-cost kid or senior attention, and rescheduling services which will enable societal, instruction, conveyance and public assistance services to be more woman-friendly and user-orientated that will let flexible working times ( Lister, 2000, cited in Lewis et Al, p.23 ; 25 ) . In add-on, societal policy demands to go on recognizing the part that carers make to the public assistance of persons within households and the subsequent nest eggs that the authorities makes. Different types of support are required at different times to run into the altering single and household fortunes and household friendly policies that aim to assist households to equilibrate work and place precedences are necessary to better the household s function in caring for kids and the aged. Another cardinal issue of society that societal policies fail to back up is the inclusion of handicapped parents. Research done by CSCI ( 2009, online ) argues that policy and pattern within kids s and adults service have been developed individually which has resulted in services that addresses the peculiar person instead than that of the whole household. This creates spreads through which disabled parents and their households frequently fall. Disabled parents argue that they want support and acknowledgment as persons and to hold their parenting function recognised, as there is still much uncertainty about their capableness to parent. Policy should guarantee that consistent and comprehensive stairss are taken to make out to disenable parents and a partnership attack is the key to guaranting that the correct services and support are delivered to disenable parents and their households. The stigmatization about their inability to rear efficaciously needs to be addressed and they need to be supported to interrupt down the societal inclusion barriers that they face on a day-to-day footing. The demands of the handicapped parent/s, those of the kids and the linking demands of the whole household demand to be to the full understood by all who work with the handicapped parent and their household. CSCI ( 2009, online ) argues that the current troubles experienced by handicapped parents and their households and the deficiency of chances compared to other parents and households show that there is still much to be done at policy, operational and pattern degrees. Social policies will necessitate to be introduced which will turn to the sheer graduated table of bing kid poorness and societal exclusion and those that are at hazard of it. Poverty in childhood is the precursor of hapless wellness and instruction and other cardinal results in maturity and new effectual policies, and committedness by the authorities, needs to be planned. The income and fiscal fortunes of households have to be improved to enable kids to acquire out of poorness, which means parents working and holding support to convey together, and balance, work and household life. Schemes should include trim support to happen employment, work inducements, more flexible leave policies, fiscal support and high quality and low-cost child care ( CPAG, 2008, online ) . Children should besides be recognised as equal citizens and their voice, visibleness and engagement in the procedure of policy development, and all determinations that affect their lives, need to stay at the head of policy shapers. A organizing scheme of kid and household friendly policies that include doing kids and households a political precedence, procuring and increasing the resources of households and heightening kid development and good being that include the most vulnerable demand to be introduced. This piece of work has merely touched on some of the alterations that will impact societal work and policy and there are many others that have non been discussed. However policies should ever take into history societal divisions and differences, and it is critical that the continual tendencies and alterations are understood and societal policy adapts and responds to these. Pahl ( 2003 ) argues that social policies in the hereafter will no uncertainty go on to be a sensitive index of the current province of sentiment on the altering nature of household life and will go on to hold a powerful consequence on the life criterions and public assistance of persons within households ( cited in Baldock et Al, p.187 ) . However policy shapers tend to run outside of the existent universe and lack the apprehension of the continual shifting personal and private universe of persons for which their policies are written. The universe is invariably altering, as is humanity, society, communities, fami lies, household, people and persons and the authorities think armored combat vehicles are cognizant of the alterations we are undergoing, printing many white and green documents which address the challenges we face. Policy shapers should be trying to happen ways to break meet people s demands and advancing societal inclusion but are more likely to be found advancing behavioral alteration or interfering in people s lives. Playing a portion in tomorrows Britain and authorising people to hold pick and control may be good but is it low-cost? Although many may reason about whether we can really afford non to alter, the inquiry we should be inquiring, in visible radiation of the current fiscal clime, is whether societal work and in peculiar societal policies can financially afford to develop in response to the demographic and societal alterations? WORD COUNT 3054

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